India’s population is set to fall as its total fertility rate ( TFR) or the average number of children born to a woman over her lifetime has dropped below replacement level for the first time and is now 2.
Between NFHS-3 and the latest NFHS-5 in 2019-21, some of the most populous states, such as Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan , Madhya Pradesh and Bihar in that order, showed significant decline in TFR, which has helped India’s overall rate fall below the replacement level.
The lowest fertility rate among larger states is in J&K at 1.4. It is also the state that recorded the highest decline of 0.6 in fertility rate between the last NFHS survey in 2015-16 and the latest one. Among larger states, Kerala and Punjab had the lowest fertility rate of 1.6 in NFHS-4, followed by Tamil Nadu with 1.7.Title 1